Titanium & Titanium Alloys

Commercially Pure (CP) Titanium and Titanium alloys offer a unique combination of strength, weight and corrosion resistance. Developed in the 1950s for defense and aeronautical applications, Titanium alloys provide a high strength-to-weight ratio, while bridging the gap between the properties of steel and aluminum. Over the years, increased production has lowered costs for these materials, allowing them to be used across a wide variety of industries.

CP Titanium, Ti 6Al-4V and Ti 6Al-4V ELI, Ti-Pd and Titanium Grade 12 are the most common titanium alloys used in industry; however, United Titanium carries additional grades with limited availability for more specialized circumstances.

Through innovation across diverse markets, titanium alloys comprise a variety of applications including: satellites, plating racks, cryogenic storage vessels, saline water conversion units, wet chlorine gas piping, seawater pumps, pulp and paper production, airplanes, high-current superconductors and off-shore drilling equipment. They’re also utilized in consumer goods such as yachts, jewelry, eyeglass frames and golf clubs. Titanium remains the material of choice for the medical and dental industry for implants, pacemakers, as well as hip and knee replacements.

Contact us for more information. We can help you determine the best material for your application.

  • Ti - Pd

    Ti-Pd (Grade 7) is mechanically and physically equivalent to CP-Ti (Grade 2), except with the addition of the interstitial element palladium. Ti-Pd (Grade 7) possesses excellent weldability and fabricality, and is the most corrosion resistant of all titanium alloys. In fact, it is most resistant to corrosion in reducing acids. Ti-Pd applications include chemical processing, pulp and paper, petrochemical, pollution control, metal finishing and the marine industries.

     

    Titanium-Palladium
    (Ti-Pd)
    Carbon
    C
    Iron
    FE
    Hydrogen
    H
    Nitrogen
    N
    Oxygen
    O
    Other Palladium
    Pd
    Titanium
    Ti
    <=0.10 <=0.40 <=0.015 <=0.05 <=0.6 <0.4 0.12 to 0.25 Balance
  • CP Titanium Grades 1 - 4

    Commercially Pure (CP) Titanium is used primarily for its corrosion resistance. It resists pitting, crevice and cavitation corrosion, erosion and stress corrosion cracking in salt water, marine atmospheres and a broad range of acids, alkalis and industrial chemicals. The corrosion resistance results from a very thin (~10nm), stable, continuous oxide layer that regenerates instantaneously if any oxygen or moisture is present. Titanium is mostly corrosive resistant when placed in oxidizing or mildly reducing media.

  • Ti 6Al-4V and Ti 6Al-4V ELI

    Ti 6Al-4V and Ti 6Al-4V ELI are the most widely used titanium alloys and account for more than half of all the titanium sponge used worldwide. Aerospace applications account for 80% of that usage. The remainder is found in defense, marine, medical, chemical, and other industries.

    Neither grade of Ti 6Al-4V has corrosion properties quite as good as CP titanium, but both are corrosion resistant in seawater, oxidizing acids, aqueous chlorides, wet chlorine gas and sodium hypochlorite.

    Altering the interstitial levels tends to enhance certain properties; Ti 6Al-4V ELI (Extra Low Interstitials) is a popular alloy where medium strength and good toughness are required. The strength and ductility are similar, but the fracture toughness of the ELI grade is about 25% higher than the standard grade. The ELI grade is usually specified for seawater applications (MIL-T-9047) and for medical use (ASTM F136). A medical grade of Ti 6Al-4V (ASTM F1472) also exists.

  • Titanium Grade 12

    Grade 12 titanium is also very near pure with some molybdenum and nickel added. This alloy offers slightly improved strength and optimum ASME Code design. Ti Grade 12 is readily weldable and has superior crevice corrosion resistance.

Specifications

Mechanical Properties

Alloy Specifications UTS (psi) YS (psi) EI (%) RA (%)
     min.  min.  min.  min.
 CP-1  ASTM B265 / B348 Grade 1  35,000  25,000  24   30
 CP-2  ASTM B265 / B348 Grade 2  50,000  40,000  20  30
 CP-3  ASTM B265 / B348 Grade 3  65,000  55,000  18  30
 CP-4  ASTM B265 / B348 Grade 4  80,000  70,000  15  25
 Ti 6AI-4V  ASTM B265 / B348 Grade 5  130,000  120,000  10  25
 Ti 6AI-4v ELI  ASTM B265 / B348 Grade 23  120,000  110,000  10  25
 Ti-Pd  ASTM B265 / B348 Grade 7  50,000  40,000  20  30
 TiCode 12  ASTM B265 / B348 Grade 12  70,000  50,000  18  25

Other Properties

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (in/in/°C) 8.64 x 10-6
Thermal Conductivity (BTU/hr/ft2/°F/ft) 9.5
Electrical Resistivity (micro-ohm-cm) 47.8
Magnetic Susceptibility 1.25 x 10-6
Young's Modulus ( lbf / in2 ) 16.8
Poisson's Ratio 0.41
Density ( lb/in3 )

0.163

Melting Point

3000 F

Expansion Coefficient (in/in/F)

4.8 x 106

Specific Heat (Btu/lb F)

.125

 

Titanium and its alloys are at least as strong in compression as in tension. They are 60 percent as strong in shear as in tension. The hardness of CP titanium ranges from less than 120 Bhn to 300 Bhn. The tensile modulus of elasticity is about 14.9 x 106 psi and the shear modulus is 6.5 x 106 psi. The impact resistance and fracture toughness of titanium and its alloys are inversely affected by increased strength levels and interstitial content. In fatigue situations, the normal endurance limit of these materials is about .5 to .65 multiplied by the ultimate tensile strength for unnotched elements. Corners, notches, holes, rough surfaces and other discontinuities reduce fatigue resistance considerably.

An allotropic change from HCP to BCC and the pickup of interstitial gases limit the high temperature applications of titanium. For short-time service, such as fire walls, titanium is useful to 2000 F, but for long-time service, the upper limit for titanium in hot air is about 1000 F. The thermal conductivity of titanium is in the range of 9.5 Btu/ht/ft2/F/ft, which is similar to that of austenitic stainless steels. The electrical resistivity of titanium is 48-60 microhm-cm at room temperature and increases with temperature reaching 135-145 microhm-cm between 1000 and 1400 F.

Titanium’s corrosion resistance results from a very thin (~10nm), stable, continuous oxide layer that regenerates instantaneously if any oxygen or moisture is present.